Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings
The equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework which supports the test pipe work and instrumentation. The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for study: mitre bend, 90o elbow, sweep bends contraction and sudden enlargement. All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tapping. These tappings are connected to a bank of twelve water manometer tubes, mounted on the framework. Pressurization of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. A gate valve is used to control the flow rate. A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings which are connected to a differential gauge on the edge of the framework.
Circuit with four bends of different radii